The following is a
dictionary of basic roofing terms and phrases. I don't know why we
put this in? Never-the-less here it is...
Aggregate: (1) Crushed stone, crushed slag, or water-worn gravel
used for surfacing a built-up roof; (2) Any granular mineral material.
Alligatoring: The cracking of the surfacing bitumen on a built-up
roof, producing a pattern of cracks similar to an alligator's hide; the
cracks may or may not extend through the surfacing bitumen.
Application Rate: The quantity (mass, volume or thickness) of
material applied per unit area.
Area Divider: A raised, double wood member attached to a properly
flashed wood base plate that is anchored to the roof deck. It is used to
relieve thermal stresses in a roof system where no expansion joints have
been provided. (See NRCA Construction Detail D-1).
Asbestos: A group of natural, fibrous, impure silicate materials.
Asphalt: A dark brown to black cementitious material in which the
predominating constituents are bitumens, which occur in nature or are
obtained in petroleum processing.
Asphalt, Air Blown: An asphalt produced by blowing air through
molten asphalt at an elevated temperature to raise its softening point and
modify other properties.
Asphalt Felt: An asphalt-saturated felt or an asphalt-coated felt.
Asphalt Mastic: A mixture of asphaltic material and grade mineral
aggregate that can be poured when heated but requires mechanical
manipulation to apply when cool.
Asphalt, Steam Blown: An asphalt produced by blowing steam through
molten asphalt to modify its properties, normally used for highway
Backnailing: The practice of blind nailing (in addition to
hot-mopping) all the plies of a substrate to prevent slippage. (See BLIND
Base Flashing: See FLASHING.
Base Ply: The base ply is the first ply when it is a separate ply
and not part of a shingled system.
Base Sheet: A saturated or coated felt placed as the first ply in
some multi-ply, built-up roof membranes.
Bitumen: The generic term for an amorphous, semi-solid mixture of
complex hydrocarbons derived from any organic source. Asphalt and coal tar
are the two bitumens used in the roofing industry.
Bituminous: Containing or treated with bitumen. Examples:
bituminous concrete, bituminous felts and fabrics, bituminous pavement.
Bituminous Emulsion: (1) A suspension of minute globules of
bituminous material in water or in an aqueous solution; (2) A suspension
of minute globules of water or an aqueous solution in a liquid bituminous
material (invert emulsion).
Bituminous Grout: A mixture of bituminous material and fine sand
that will flow into place without mechanical manipulation when heated.
Blind Nailing: The practice of nailing the back portion of a
Blister: A spongy raised portion of a roof membrane, ranging in
area from 1 inch in diameter and of barely detectable height upwards.
Blisters result from the pressure buildup of gases entrapped in the
membrane system. These gases most commonly are air and/or water vapor.
Blisters usually involve delamination of the underlying membrane plies.
Bond: The adhesive and cohesive forces holding two roofing
components in intimate contact.
Brooming: Embedding a ply of roofing material by using a broom to
smooth out the ply and ensure contact with the adhesive under the ply.
BTU: (British Thermal Unit) - The heat energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit.
Built-Up Roof Membrane: A continuous, semi-flexible roof membrane
assembly, consisting of plies of saturated felts, coated felts, fabrics or
mats between which alternate layers of bitumen are applied, generally
surfaced with mineral aggregate, bituminous materials, or a granule
surfaced roofing sheet. (Abbreviation: BUR.)
Cant Strip: A bevelled shaped strip of wood or wood fiber that
fits into the angle formed by the intersection of a horizontal surface and
a vertical surface. The 45 degree slope of the exposed surface of the cant
strip provides a gradual angular transition from the horizontal surface to
the vertical surface.
Cap Flashing: See FLASHING.
Capillarity: The action by which the surface of a liquid (where it
is in contact with a solid) is elevated or depressed, depending upon the
relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for
those of the solid.
Cap Sheet: A granule-surfaced coated sheet used as the top ply of a
built-up roof membrane of flashing.
Caulking: A composition of vehicle and pigment, used at ambient
temperatures for filling joints, that remains plastic for an extended time
Coal Tar Bitumen: A dark brown to black, semi-solid hydrocarbon
formed as a residue from the partial evaporation of distillation of coal
tar. It is used as the waterproofing agent in dead-level or low-slope
built-up roofs. It differs from COAL TAR PITCH in having a lower front-end
volatility. (For specification properties, see ASTM Standard D 450, Type
Coal Tar Felt: See TARRED FELT.
Coal Tar Pitch: A dark brown to black, semi-solid hydrocarbon
formed as a residue from the partial evaporation or distillation of coal
tar. It is used as the waterproofing agent in dead-level or low-slope
built-up roofs. (For specification properties, see ASTM Standard D 450,
Types I and II.)
Coated Base Sheet (or Felt): A felt that has been impregnated and
saturated with asphalt and then coated on both sides with harder, more
viscous asphalt to increase its impermeability to moisture; a parting
agent is incorporated to prevent the material from sticking in the roll.
Cold-Process Roofing: A continuous, semi-flexible roof membrane,
consisting of plies of felts, mats, or fabrics that are laminated on a
roof with alternate layers of cold-applied roof cement and surfaced with a
Condensation: The conversion of water vapor or other gas to liquid
as the temperature drops or the atmospheric pressure rises. (See
Coping: The covering piece placed on top of a wall that is exposed
to the weather. It is usually sloped to shed water.
Counterflashing: Formed metal or elastomeric sheeting secured on or
into a wall, curb, pipe, rooftop unit or other surface to cover and
protect the upper edge of a base flashing and its associated fasteners.
Course: (1) The term used for each application of material that
forms the waterproofing system or the flashing; (2) One layer of a series
of materials applied to a surface (i.e., a five course wall flashing is
composed of three applications of mastic with one ply of felt sandwiched
between each layer of mastic).
Coverage: The surface area (in square feet) to be continuously
coated by a specific roofing material, with allowance made for a specific
Crack: A separation or fracture occurring in a roof membrane or
roof deck, generally caused by thermally induced stress or substrate
Creep: The permanent deformation of a roofing material or roof
system caused by the movement of the roof membrane that results from
continuous thermal stress or loading.
Cricket: A superimposed construction placed in a roof area to
assist drainage. (See NRCA Construction Detail P.)
Cutback: Any bituminous roofing material that has been solvent
thinned. Cutbacks are used in cold-process roofing adhesives, flashing
cements, and roof coatings.
Cutoff: A material seal that is designed to prevent lateral water
movement into the edge of a roof system where the membrane terminates at
the end of a day's work or used to isolate sections of the roof system.
Cutoffs are usually removed before the continuation of work.
Dampproofing: Treatment of a surface or structure to resist the
passage of water in the absence of hydrostatic pressure.
Dead Level: The term used to describe an absolutely horizontal
roof. Zero slope. (See SLOPE.)
Dead Level Asphalt: A roofing asphalt that has a softening point of
140 degrees F. (60 degrees C.) and that conforms to the requirements of
ASTM Standard D 312, Type I.
Dead Loads: Non-moving rooftop loads, such as mechanical equipment,
air conditioning units, and the roof deck itself.
Deck: The structural surface to which the roofing or waterproofing
system (including insulation) is applied.
Delamination: Separation of the plies in a roof membrane system or
separation of laminated layers of insulation.
Dew-Point: The temperature at which water vapor starts to condense
in cooling air at the existing atmospheric pressure and vapor content.
Drain: A device that allows for the flow of water from a roof area.
(See NRCA Construction Detail W-2.)
Dropback: A reduction in the softening point of bitumen that occurs
when bitumen is heated in the absence of air. (See SOFTENING POINT DRIFT.)
Edge Sheets: Felt strips that are cut to widths narrower than
the standard width of the full felt roll. They are used to start the
felt-shingling pattern at a roof edge.
Edge Stripping: Application of felt strips cut to narrower widths
than the normal width of the full felt roll. They are used to cover
Edge Venting: The practice of providing regularly spaced protected
openings along a roof perimeter to relieve moisture vapor pressure.
Elastomer: A macromolecular material that returns rapidly to its
approximate initial dimensions and shape after substantial deformation by
a weak stress and the subsequent release of that stress.
Elastomeric: The term used to describe the elastic, rubber-like
properties of a material.
Embedment: (1)The process of pressing a felt, aggregate, fabric,
mat or panel uniformly and completely into hot bitumen or adhesive; (2)
The process of placing a material into another material so that it becomes
an integral part of the whole material.
Emulsion: The intimate dispersion of an organic material and water
achieved by using a chemical or clay emulsifying agent.
Envelope: A continuous felt fold formed by wrapping and securing a
portion of a base felt back up and over the felt plies above it. Envelopes
help prevent the seepage of bitumen.
EPDM: Ethylen Propylene Diene Monomer, the technical name for
rubber roofing material similar to inner-tube rubber.
Equilibrium Moisture Content: (1) The moisture content of a
material stabilized at a given temperature and relative humidity,
expressed as percent moisture by weight; (2) the typical moisture content
of a material in any given geographical area.
Equiviscous Temperature (EVT) Range: The optimum application
temperature of asphalt. It is the temperature range at which a viscosity
of 125 centistokes is attained, plus or minus 25 degrees F.
Expansion Joint: A structural separation between two building
elements designed to minimize the effect of the stresses and movements of
a building's components and to prevent these stresses from splitting or
ridging the roof membrane. (See NRCA Construction Detail C-1.)
Exposure: (1) The transverse dimension of a roofing element not
overlapped by an adjacent element in any roof system The exposure of any
ply in a membrane may be computed by dividing the felt width minus 2
inches by the number of shingled plies; thus, the exposure of a 36 inch
wide felt in a shingled, four-ply membrane should be 8-1/2 inches; (2) the
time during which a portion of a roofing element is exposed to the
Fabric: A woven cloth of organic or inorganic filaments,
threads, or yarns.
Factory Mutual (FM): An organization which classifies roof
assemblies for their fire characteristics and wind-uplift resistance for
insurance companies in the United States.
Factory Square: 108 square feet (10 square meters) of roofing
Felt: A fabric manufactured from vegetable fibers (organic felts),
asbestos fibers (asbestos felts), or glass fibers (glass fiber felts). The
manufacturing process involves mechanically interlocking the fibers of the
particular felt material in the presence of moisture and heat.
Felt Mill Ream: The mass in pounds of 480 square feet of dry,
unsaturated felt; also termed "point weight."
Fine Mineral Surfacing: A water-insoluble, inorganic material, more
than 50% of which passes through the No. 35 sieve, that may be used on the
surface of roofing material.
Fishmouth: (1) A half-cylindrical or half-conical opening formed by
an edge wrinkle; (2) in shingles, a half-conical opening formed at a cut
Flashing: The system used to seal the edges of a membrane at walls,
expansion joints, drains, gravel stops and other areas where the membrane
is interrupted or terminated. BASE FLASHING covers the edges of the
membrane. CAP FLASHING or COUNTERFLASHING shields the upper edges of the
Flashing Cement: A trowelable mixture of cutback bitumen and
mineral stabilizers, including asbestos or other inorganic fibers.
Flat Asphalt: A roofing asphalt that has a softening point of
approximately 170 degrees F. (77 degrees C.) and that conforms to the
requirements of ASTM Standard D 312, Type II.
Flood Coat: The top layer of bitumen into which the aggregate is
embedded on an aggregate surfaced built-up roof.
Fluid Applied Elastomer: An elastomeric material, which is fluid at
ambient temperature, that dries or cures after application to form a
Glass Fiber Felt: A felt sheet in which glass fibers are bonded
into the felt sheet with resin. They are suitable for impregnation and
coating. They are used in the manufacture and coating of bituminous
waterproofing materials, roof membranes, and shingles.
Glass Fiber Mat: A thin mat composed of glass fibers with or
without a binder.
Glaze Coat: (1) The top layer of asphalt in a smooth-surface
built-up roof assembly; (2) a thin protective coating of bitumen applied
to the lower plies or top ply of a built-up roof membrane when application
of additional felts or the flood coat and aggregate surfacing are delayed.
Grain: The weight unit equal to 1/7000 lb.; used in measuring
atmospheric moisture content.
Gravel: Coarse, granular aggregate, containing pieces approximately
5/8 inch to 1/2 inch in size and suitable for use in aggregate surfacing
on built-up roofs.
Gravel Stop: A flanged device, frequently metallic, designed to
provide a continuous finished edge for roofing
Headlap: The minimum distance, measured at 90 degrees to the
eaves along the face of a shingle or felt, from the upper edge of the
shingle or felt to the nearest exposed surface.
Holiday: An area where a liquid-applied material is missing.
"Hot Stuff" or "Hot": The roofer's term for hot bitumen.
Hygroscopic: The term used to describe a material which attracts,
absorbs and retains atmospheric moisture.materials and to prevent loose
aggregate surfacing on built-up roofs.
Incline: The slope of a roof expressed either in percent or in
the number of vertical units of rise per horizontal unit of run.
Inorganic: Being or composed of matter other than hydrocarbons and
their derivatives, or matter that is not of plant or animal origin.
Insulation: A material applied to reduce the flow of heat.
Knot: An imperfection or nonhomogeneity in materials used in
fabric construction, the presence of which causes surface irregularities.
Live Loads: Moving roof installation equipment, wind, snow, ice
Manufacturer's Bond: A security company's guarantee that it will
stand behind a manufacturer's liability to finance membrane repairs
occasioned by ordinary wear within a period generally limited to 5, 10, 15
or 20 years.
Mastic: See FLASHING or ASPHALT MASTIC.
Membrane: A flexible or semi-flexible roof covering or
waterproofing layer, whose primary function is the exclusion of water.
Mesh: The square or circular opening of a sieve.
Metal Flashing: See FLASHING; metal flashing is frequently used as
through-wall flashing, cap flashing, counterflashing or gravel stops.
Mineral Fiber Felt: A felt with mineral wool as its principal
Mineral Granules: Opaque, natural, or synthetically colored
aggregate commonly used to surface cap sheets, granule-surfaced sheets,
and roofing shingles.
Mineral Stabilizer: A fine, water-insoluble inorganic material,
used in a mixture with solid or semi-solid bituminous materials.
Mineral-Surfaced Roofing: Built-up roofing materials whose top ply
consists of a granule-surfaced sheet.
Mineral-Surfaced Sheet: A felt that is coated on one or both sides
with asphalt and surfaced with mineral granules.
Mopping: An application of hot bitumen applied to the substrate or
to the felt of a built-up roof membrane with a mop or mechanical
applicator. (SEE SOLID MOPPING, SPOT MOPING, SPRINKLE MOPPING, AND STRIP
Nailing: (1) In the EXPOSED NAIL METHOD, nail heads are exposed
to the weather; (2) in the CONCEALED NAIL METHOD, nail heads are concealed
from the weather. (See also BLIND NAILING.)
Neoprene: A synthetic rubber (polychloroprene) used in
liquid-applied and sheet-applied elastomeric roof membrane or flashings.
Nineteen-Inch Selvage: A prepared roofing sheet with a 17 inch
granule-surfaced exposure and a non granule-surfaced 19 inch selvage edge.
This material is sometimes referred to as SIS or as Wide-Selvage Asphalt
Roll Roofing Material Surfaced with Mineral Granules.
Organic: Being or composed of hydrocarbons or their derivatives,
or matter of plant or animal origin.
Perlite: An aggregate used in lightweight insulating concrete
and in preformed perlitic insulation boards, formed by heating and
expanding siliceous volcanic glass.
Perm: A unit of water vapor transmission defined as 1 grain of
water vapor per square foot per hour per inch of mercury pressure
difference (1 inch of mercury = 0.491 psi). The formula for perm is:
P= GRAINS OF WATER VAPOR/SQUAREFOOTHOURINCH MERCURY
Permeance: An index of a material's resistance to water vapor
transmission. (See Perm.)
Phased Application: The installation of a roof system or
waterproofing system during two or more separate time intervals.
Picture Framing: A rectangular pattern of ridges in a roof membrane
over insulation or deck joints.
Pitch Pocket: A flanged, open-bottomed, metal container placed
around columns or other roof penetrations that is filled with hot bitumen
and/or flashing cement to seal the joint. The use of pitch pockets is not
recommended by NRCA.
Plastic Cement: See FLASHING CEMENT.
Ply: A layer of felt in a built-up roof membrane system. A four-ply
membrane system has four plies of felt. The dimension of the exposed
surface (the "exposure") of any ply may be computed by dividing the felt
width (minus 2 inches) by the number of plies; thus, the exposed surface
of a 36 inch wide felt in a four-ply membrane should be 8-1/2 inches. (See
Point Weight: See FELT MILL REAM.
Pond: A roof surface which is incompletely drained.
Positive Damage: The drainage condition in which consideration has
been made for all loading deflections of the deck, and additional roof
slope has been provided to ensure complete drainage of the roof area
within 24 hours of rainfall precipitation.
Primer: A thin, liquid bitumen applied to a surface to improve the
adhesion of subsequent applications of bitumen.
Rake: The slope edge of a roof at the first or last rafter.
Re-entrant Corner: An inside corner of a surface, producing stress
concentrations in the roofing or waterproofing membrane.
Reglet: A groove in a wall or other surface adjoining a roof
surface for use in the attachment of counterflashing.
Reinforced Membrane: A roofing or waterproofing membrane reinforced
with felts, mats, fabrics, or chopped fibers.
Relative Humidity: The ratio of the weight of moisture in a given
volume of air-vapor mixture to the saturated (maximum) weight of water
vapor at the same temperature, expressed as a percentage. For example, if
the weight of the moist air is 1 pound and if the air could hold 2 pounds
of water vapor at a given temperature, the relative humidity (RH) is 50%.
Reroofing: The practice of applying new roofing materials over
existing roofing materials.
Ridging: An upward, "tenting" displacement of a roof membrane,
frequently occurring over insulation joints, deck joints and base sheet
Roll Roofing: The term applied to smooth-surface or
mineral-surfaced coated felts.
Roof Assembly: An assembly of interacting roof components
(including the roof deck) designed to weatherproof and, normally, to
insulate a building's top surface.
Roofer: The trade name for the workman who applies roofing
Roof System: A system of interacting roof components (NOT including
the roof deck) designed to weatherproof and, normally, to insulate a
building's top surface.
Saturated Felt: A felt that has been partially saturated with low
softening point bitumen.
Screen: An apparatus with apertures for separating sizes of
Seal: (1) A narrow closure strip made of bituminous materials; (2)
to secure a roof from the entry of moisture.
Sealant: A mixture of polymers, fillers, and pigments used to fill
and seal joints where moderate movement is expected; it cures to a
Selvage: An edge or edging which differs from the main part of (1)
a fabric, or (2) granule-surfaced roll roofing material.
Selvage Joint: A lapped joint designed for mineral-surfaced cap
sheets. The mineral surfacing is omitted over a small portion of the
longitudinal edge of the sheet below in order to obtain better adhesion of
the lapped cap sheet surface with the bituminous adhesive.
Shark Fin: An upward-curled felt side lap or end lap.
Shingle: (1) A small unit of prepared roofing material designed to
be installed with similar units in overlapping rows on inclines normally
exceeding 25%; (2) to cover with shingles; (3) to apply any sheet material
in overlapping rows like shingles.
Shingling: (1) The procedure of laying parallel felts so that one
longitudinal edge of each felt OVERLAPS and the other longitudinal edge
UNDERLAPs, an adjacent felt. (See PLY.) Normally, felts are shingled on a
slope so that the water flows over rather than against each lap; (2) the
application of shingles to a sloped roof.
Sieve: An apparatus with apertures for separating sizes of
Slag: A hard, air cooled aggregate that is left as a residue from
blast furnaces. It is used as a surfacing aggregate and should be surface
dry and free of sand, clay or other foreign substances at the time of
Slippage: The relative lateral movement of adjacent components of a
built-up roof membrane. It occurs mainly in roof membranes on a slope,
sometimes exposing the lower plies to the weather.
Slope: The tangent of the angle between the roof surface and the
horizontal. It is measured in inches per foot. The Asphalt Roofing
Manufacturers Association (ARMA) ranks slope as follows:
Level Slope: Up to 1/2 inch per foot
Low Slope: 1/2 inch per foot to 1-1/2 inches per foot
Steep Slope: Over 1-1/2 inches per foot
Smooth-Surface Roof: A built-up roof membrane surfaced with a layer
of hot-mopped asphalt, cold-applied asphalt-clay emulsion, cold-applied
asphalt cutback, or sometimes with an unmopped inorganic felt.
Softening Point: The temperature at which bitumen becomes soft
enough to flow. The softening point of asphalt is measured by the
"ring-and-ball" test (ASTM Standard D 2398). The softening point of coal
tar pitch is measured by the "cube-in-water" test (ASTM Standard D 61).
Softening Point Drift: A change in the softening point of bitumen
during storage or application. (See DROPBACK.)
Solid Mopping: A continuous mopping of a surface, leaving no
Special Steep Asphalt: A roofing asphalt that has a softening point
of approximately 220 degrees F. (104 degrees C.) and that conforms to the
requirements of ASTM Standard D 312, Type IV.
Split: A separation in roofing material resulting from movement of
the substrate. (See CRACK.)
Split Sheet: See NINETEEN-INCH SELVAGE.
Spot Mopping: A mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in
roughly circular areas, leaving a grid of unmopped, perpendicular bands on
Sprinkle Mopping: A random mopping pattern wherein heated bitumen
bands are strewn onto the substrate with a brush or mop.
Square: The term used to describe 100 square feet of roof area.
Stack Vent: A vertical outlet in a built-up roof system designed to
relieve any pressure exerted by moisture vapor between the roof membrane
and the vapor retarder or deck.
Steep Asphalt: A roofing asphalt that has a softening point of
approximately 190 degrees F. (88 degrees C.) and that conforms to the
requirements of ASTM Standard D 312, Type III.
Strawberry: A small bubble or blister in the flood coating of a
gravel-surfaced roof membrane.
Strip Mopping: A mopping pattern in which hot bitumen is applied in
Stripping or Strip Flashing: (1) The technique of sealing a joint
between metal and the built-up roof membrane with one or two plies of felt
and hot-applied or cold-applied bitumen; (2) the technique of taping
joints between insulation boards on deck panels.
Substrate: The surface upon which the roofing or waterproofing
membrane is applied (i.e., the structural deck of insulation).
Superimposed Loads: Loads that are added to existing loads. For
example, a large stack of insulation boards placed on top of a structural
Tapered Edge Strip: A tapered insulation strip used to (1)
elevate the roof at the perimeter and at curbs that extend through the
roof; (2) provide a gradual transition from one layer of insulation to
Taping: See STRIPPING.
Tar: A brown or black bituminous material, liquid or semi-solid in
consistency, in which the predominating constituents are bitumens obtained
as condensates in the processing of coal, petroleum, oil-shale, wood or
other organic materials.
Tarred Felt: A felt that has been saturated with refined coal tar.
Test Cut: A sample of the roof membrane, usually 4" x 36" or 12" x
12" in size, that is cut from a roof membrane to:
1.) Determine the weight of the average interply bitumen poundages. 2.)
Diagnose the condition of the existing membrane (e.g., to detect leaks or
NRCA recommends that the test cut procedure NOT be used as a means of
determining the quality of a roof system.
Thermal Conductance (C): A unit of heat flow that is used for
specific thicknesses of material or for materials of combination
construction, such as laminated insulation. The formula for thermal
C =k/ thickness in inches
Thermal Conductivity (k): The heat energy that will be transmitted
by conduction through one square foot of one inch thick homogeneous
material in one hour when there is a difference of 1 degree Fahrenheit
perpendicularly across the two surfaces of the material. The formula for
thermal conductivity is:
k = BTU/SQUARE FOOT/INCH/HOUR/DEGREE FAHRENHEIT
Thermal Insulation: A material applied to reduce the flow of heat.
Thermal Resistance (R): An index of a material's resistance to heat
flow; it is the reciprocal of thermal conductivity (k) or thermal
conductance (C). The formula for thermal resistance is:
R = 1 or R = 1 or R = thickness in inches
C k k
Thermal Shock: The stress-producing phenomenon resulting from
sudden temperature changes in a roof membrane. (For example, when a rain
shower follows brilliant sunshine.)
Through-Wall Flashing: A water-resistant membrane or material
assembly extending through a wall and its cavities, positioned to direct
any water entering the top of the wall to the exterior.
TPO: Thermoplastic olefin is a lightweight plastic membrane that is
Underwriters Laboratories (UL): An organization which classifies
roof assemblies for their fire characteristics and wind-uplift resistance
for insurance companies in the United States.
Vapor Migration: The movement of water vapor from a region of
high vapor pressure to a region of lower vapor pressure.
Vapor-Pressure Gradient: A graph, analogous to a temperature
gradient, indicating the changes in water vapor pressure at various
cross-sectional planes through a roof or wall system.
Vapor Retarder: A material designed to restrict the passage of
water vapor through a wall or roof. In the roofing industry, a vapor
retarder should have a perm rating of 0.5 or less.
Vent: An opening designed to convey water vapor or other gas from
inside a building or a building component to the atmosphere, thereby
relieving vapor pressure.
Vermiculite: An aggregate used in lightweight insulating concrete,
formed by the heating and consequent expansion of a micaceous mineral.
Water Cutoff: See CUTOFFS.
Waterproofing: Treatment of a surface or structure to prevent the
passage of water under hydrostatic pressure.